This is by no means a deep in depth authoritative study on the matter, just some thoughts as to how things might play out in an society sans government.
A little thought exercise: imagine with me for a moment, that the people who comprise the current government, vacated their positions. Perhaps they were all simultaneously struck with a sudden crisis of conscience, maybe they were raptured in all their saintly-hood. For whatever reason, we no longer have the “authority” there to tell us what we can and cannot do, right and wrong.
Most people’s first thought is, “how would they build and maintain the roads”.
For the most part, the roads today are already in place and in decent enough condition. There are always, of course, exceptions to this, but the question of BUILDING the roads is mostly taken care of.
Now, how would we maintain them.
This could be taken care of in a variety of ways, all without central planning and oversight. The repair work could be done by volunteers, with funds being raised through donations. In a city with a large enough population, its likely there would be enough money donated to the road fund to hire an actual paving company. Private businesses would also help, as bad roads are hard on vehicles and equipment, and most private businesses tend to try to protect their investments in any way possible. Take the case of Domino’s Pizza, where they paid to have roads repaired in multiple cities across the U.S.
You could also have a toll-booth like system on lager more well traveled highways. This could be set up somehow with block-chain to keep track of all funds collected to ensure the money is not mis-appropriated.
If a new major highway or bridge was needed, a private road building company might consider doing the work, and charging a toll for traveling the highway. This is often done by government now even though the roads are already funded through taxation.
We are only limited by our imaginations in coming up with solutions to this issue. One thing is certain, we do not need central planners to build/maintain our roads any more than they are needed to build houses, vehicles, and grow food. If the demand is great enough, someone will step up to fill the need, no matter the product in question.